What does a transformer actually transform voltage current or energy

FAQ | Mar 04,2023

A transformer is a device that is used to transform the voltage and current of an electrical power system, but it does not transform energy. Specifically, a transformer changes the voltage and current levels of an alternating current (AC) electrical signal while keeping the frequency of the signal constant.

The basic operation of a transformer involves two coils of wire wrapped around a common magnetic core. The primary coil is connected to an AC power source, while the secondary coil is connected to the load. When AC power flows through the primary coil, it generates a magnetic field that induces an electrical current in the secondary coil. The voltage and current levels in the secondary coil are determined by the ratio of the number of turns in the primary coil to the number of turns in the secondary coil, known as the turns ratio.

Thus, a transformer can step up or step down the voltage and current levels of an AC signal depending on the turns ratio of the coils. For example, a transformer with a turns ratio of 1:2 will double the voltage and halve the current in the secondary coil compared to the primary coil.

In summary, a transformer transforms the voltage and current levels of an AC electrical signal while conserving energy, but it does not transform energy itself.

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