The excitation current of a transformer is the current that is required to create the magnetic field that induces the voltage in the transformer’s secondary winding. This current is composed of several components, including:
- Magnetizing current: This is the primary component of the excitation current, and it is the current that creates the magnetic field in the core of the transformer. It is also known as the no-load current.
- Core loss current: This is the current that is required to overcome the core losses in the transformer, which include hysteresis and eddy current losses.
- Leakage current: This is the current that flows in the insulation and windings of the transformer, and it is caused by the capacitance between the windings and between the windings and the core.
- Dielectric loss current: This is the current that is required to overcome the dielectric losses in the transformer, which are caused by the insulation materials used in the transformer.
All of these components contribute to the total excitation current of the transformer. The excitation current is typically measured by connecting an ammeter in series with the primary winding of the transformer while it is under no-load conditions. The excitation current is an important parameter for transformer design and operation, as it can affect the efficiency and performance of the transformer.
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